92 intact skeletons from the Mary Rose

Bones of more than 170 individuals were recovered from the wreck of the Tudor warship Mary Rose. 92 individuals are almost entirely intact.





The ‘La Belle’ skeleton

Another comparable shipwreck mystery is presented by the skeleton recovered from the ‘La Belle‘ in Matagorda Bay, Tx

Someone who would have known….

Someone who would have known the names of the two men who died during the night before the Pandora sank was George Hamilton, the surgeon, who published a book about his voyage in the Pandora. No names given, he just told us how they died. Unfortunately for us, he apparently did not think that level of detail was important enough to include in his account. However, quite a lot of information is recoverable regarding Hamilton:

Hamilton was 36 years old when he joined the Pandora from the half pay list; by warrant dd. 10 Aug. 1790. He appeared on 13 Aug. 1790 with a ‘servant’ named George Augustus Hamilton (probably a nephew) and received £29.4s.6d advance pay and £97.12s.8d in ‘neat wages’ on 17 Oct. 1792, when the crew was ‘paid off’. His nephew was discharged -together with all other officers’ servants- on 25 Oct 1790 by Admiralty order; to make room for the extra seamen on board who would be required to crew the Bounty after it had been captured.

Hamilton’s wife was Jane Hamilton, née Bowie, of St Gabriel’s parish, Fenchurch, London, whom he had married (“by licence”) when “in the 37th year of his age” on 31st August 1790 (several months prior to the Pandora’s departure for the South Seas!) in St Margaret’s Pattens, London. (Adm. 6/335)

Although he was also living in St Gabriel’s parish before he married, Hamilton published a voyage account (based on his voyage journal) in 1793 with Wm. Phorsons in Berwick-on-Tweed.(Hamilton, 1793) [Was this his p.o.b; was there a family connection with Phorsons (??)]  

19 December 1792: after the court martial of the Bounty mutineers he was warranted as the surgeon of H.M.S. Lowestoff,  5th Rate,  32 guns (Adm. 36/11515 & Adm.118/191).

NB:  HMS Lowestoff joined Admiral Hood’s Mediterranean fleet (1793-94).   Hood was aware that French republicans in Corsica were short of provisions and stores.  He decided to take more active measures than a blockade to prevent supplies being landed; a small squadron, including the Lowestoff was sent from Porto Ferrajo in Elba.  The squadron arrived at Mortella Bay in Corsica on 7th February 1794.  Troops were landed that evening; and on the following day a combined attack by land and sea was  made on Mortella tower;  the  Fortitude  (74)  and  Juno  (32) battering  it  for  two and  a  half  hours.   The assault was unsuccessful and the ships had to disengage; the Fortitude lost six killed and fifty-six wounded, having also been set on fire.  The fire from the British artillery on shore, however, eventually forced the tower to surrender. The next post attacked was the “Convention Redoubt”, which mounted twenty-one heavy guns, and was considered the key to the town of San Fiorenzo.  Seamen from the British squadron manhandled several 18-pounder  guns into  a  commanding  position  which  was considered inaccessible; but after a bombardment on 16th and  17th February,  the  French defenses on the redoubt were  successfully breached.   The French garrison retreated to San Fiorenzo, where a few days later they put to the torch La Fortunée and allowed La Minerve (38) to sink as a result of the damage she had suffered from British guns. In this action British losses were considered minimal (Clowes, 1899, IV: 243) However, surgeon Hamilton was probably among the casualties.

15 March 1794 – Listed as “sick”, Hamilton was discharged from the Lowestoff at Livorno (Leghorn, Italy) (Adm. 36/11515)

26 Apr 1794 – A letter from the Navy Board to the Admiralty records that George Hamilton of the Lowestoff had lost his left arm (Adm.12/63:99.1). He was repatriated during April. It is likely that Hamilton suffered this loss during the action against La Fortunée and La Minerve.

1 May 1794 – Hamilton was examined at Surgeon’s Hall, certified as having lost an arm and recommended for superannuation.

2 May 1794 – Hamilton was declared superannuated (Adm.118/191)

1794 – Hamilton is listed in the half-pay register following “discharge” from the Lowestoff (Adm.25/126:57)

1794 – July to December: George Hamilton, “superannuated surgeon of 3rd rate ship, £23.19s. 8d. for six months.”  His name appears in following superannuation lists in the same volume; up to December 1796.  (Adm.22/17:156)

Invalided out of the RN in 1794 having lost an arm while serving in the Mediterranean fleet,  off Corsica, in HMS Lowestoff; he received “superannuation” benefits until his death on 30 Sept 1797 (Adm.6/335/15)  Died in London, cf. Adm. 6/335/15 regarding Jane Hamilton, widow of George Hamilton (surgeon RN) 

George Hamilton ca. 1793


He was buried on 5 Oct. 1797 in St Luke’s (Chelsea) (London Metropolitan Archives, St Luke’s register of burials P74/LUK-255) His widow received a navy pension of £30 per annum from the charity fund “Relief of Poor Widows of Commissioned and Warrant officers of the Royal Navy” to which Hamilton had been contributing at a ratio of ‘thruppence per pound’ he earned. (Adm. 6/335)

Engraving of George Hamilton (frontispiece Hamilton, 1793)


Reference : Adm. 6/335/15   Description: f. 70. Jane Hamilton, widow of George Hamilton, surgeon Royal Navy who died 30 Sep 1797. Papers submitted to the Charity for the relief of Officers’ Widows. Date: 1797


A similar situation: mystery of 200+ year old Coldstream guardsman

The 200-year-old skeletal remains of a British soldier have been discovered in sand dunes in North Holland. A contemporary of the Pandora’s Tom, Dick & Harry.  

Who was he?  Archaeologists and historians have been finding out.   

http://www.bbc.co.uk/go/em/fr/-/news/magazine-22340193 >

Most likely Orcadians

Of the 8 Orcadians names in the Pandora’s muster, some are ‘more likely’ on historical / archaeological grounds to be Tom, Dick or Harry:

  •  Houston survived the voyage so he can immediately be eliminated;
  •  Murray and Scott died during other voyage events, so they are also ruled out;
  •  Croy, Eglington, Fea, Mackey and Miller are left as the primary candidates among the Orcadians who were part of the crew and died during the wreck;
  • Stewart (a prisoner, not-Pandora crew, not mentioned in the muster) should not be forgotten nor eliminated as he too died during the wrecking – but on historical and archaeological grounds it can be argued that it is less likely that he is one of T D or H because eyewitness accounts put him ‘in the water’ before the Pandora sank – i.e. he jumped off the ship and drowned after being hit on the head by a gangway that smashed down on him while he was swimming away from the sinking ship. Therefore it is likely that he ‘floated or drifted away’ to be consumed by the denizens of the deep (so to speak) whereas T D & H were found within the confines of the wreck remains.

Indeed I have always argued that two of the skeletons (Tom & Dick) were most probably the 2 men who –surgeon Hamilton says- died during accidents on board while the crew were trying to keep afloat the ship. They would probably have been taken below to be ‘buried at sea’ after the crew had saved the ship AND they may even have been sown into makeshift ‘body bags’ which would have protected the bodies somewhat; at least kept the bones together.

Harry’s location within the wreck makes him more of “a mystery” – although of course a hypothetical scenario can be posited to account for his apparent whereabouts (in the officers’ store) during the wrecking    (‘Harry the thief or Harry the confused, scared sailor’ or Harry the first casualty’)



Dr Sheree Hughes-Stamm

Read about Dr Hughes-Stamm’s research  into teeth from the Pandora‘s Tom, Dick & Harry  She’s the Bond University scientist -now working in Texas- who managed to sequence DNA from the human remains recovered from the Pandora wreck during the late 1990s.

George Mackay Brown2

The story called ‘Lieutenant Bligh and two midshipmen’ is among a collection of short stories published in 1995 as ‘Winter Tales’.  This story is about William Bligh’s first meeting with the Stewart family during the visit to Stromness of Cook’s Resolution, when on the home stretch of its return journey from the South Pacific in 1780. Bligh was master of the Resolution, as such he was responsible for navigation.

George Mackay Brown sets the scene by stating that George Stewart had had ‘no active part’ in the mutiny in 1789 but returned to Tahiti in the Bounty, after Bligh had been cast adrift, because he wanted to be with his ‘native wife’ and his daughter, ‘little’ Peggy. But all that -Tahiti, ‘native women’, the Bounty mutiny etc. -lies in the future. The story is about what Bligh first saw in the then 14 year old George Stewart.

It depicts George’s father Alexander Stewart as an unctuous, fawning ‘gold sweater’ – a successful merchant who owns several ships and has business interests in Newcastle and as far afield as Gothenburg and other Baltic ports. Alexander is aware of his own ‘uncouth northern accent’ when speaking English but has high hopes for his educated son George, who has already proved himself on one of his father’s ships as a competent seaman, well skilled in the art of navigation.Bligh recognises this.

The story contrasts George with one of Bligh’s junior lieutenants (Briscoe) – a scion of gentry who owes his rank to several ‘fops’ in the Admiralty. Bligh is disappointed, although he initially suspected as much, that Briscoe would prove incapable of minding his manners and not drink too much during dinner at the Stewarts’ table. Briscoe is portrayed as a roguish philanderer who, given half a chance, would even seduce and have his rakish way with the 12 year old Miss Elizabeth Stewart; whom he flatters and teases as the evening unfolds. Bligh steps in and ends the evening, which for him would have been a complete wash-out, but for being put in a position to observe young Stewart’s ‘steadiness of purpose’. The young man reminds him of the youth he once had been; he sees ‘great promise’ in the lad who unwittingly reveals to him that he is desperate to heed the call of the sea, as if -like Admiral Nelson- he harbours a deep-seated psychological compulsion to toy with Death.

The story also touches on Peter Linklater, another Orcadian who was involved in the Bounty saga; who was recruited from Stromness by one of Bligh’s officers to replace one of the Resolution’s carpenter’s mates who had died on the voyage.

Richard Mackey (Mackie?)

Assuming this is the man who served in the Pandora, it seems this Richard Mackey (baptised in Stronsay 1765) only had one sibling: Margaret.  If that is the case, then a brick-wall of some description has appeared here. Unless his father Peter remarried and had sons (‘half brothers’) with another woman.  Any other suggestions anyone?

OPR print-out from Scotland’s People

Thanks to Brisbane-based family history researcher Lynda Hodgkinson for this detail; she sent it to me quite a while ago.


A survivor’s account of the Pandora wreck


“About Sun rise, the Armourers’ Mate Joseph Hodges, was sent down to knock the  Irons off Skinner,  Muspratt & Byrn,  who were ordered up,  but Skinner being  in too much hurry,  got up with his hand-cuffs on,  and as soon  as  they  were up,  the Scuttle  was  barr’d,  leaving  the Armourers Mate below, who in the mean time knocked off my Irons & Stewarts  & we begg’d of the Master at Arms to open the  Scuttle, to  which he answered “never fear my Boys,  we’ll all go to  hell together”.  The words were hardly out of his Lips before the Ship took  a Sally,  and he and the Corporal rolled overboard;  at the same instant I saw Capt Edwards,  thro’ the Stern Ports; swimming to  the Pinnace, and the Boats shoving off as fast as  possible.  

 Burkitt  & Hillbrant were yet hand-cuff’d,  the others  had  been broke the Night before; the water flowing in on us, when the hand of God directed the Boatswains Mate (Molter) to the Place, he was scrambling  upon the Box & heard our Cries,  had the presence  ofmind  to haul out the Bolt,and take the Grating off,  which he dove overboard  and  followed himself,  upon  which  all  except Hillbrant,  got  out,  tho’ with much difficulty;  and for my own part, I had as much as I could do to get clear of the Driver Boom before she sunk.

 I was to the best of my recollection, about an hour and an half in the water, when I was taken up by Mr. Bowling in the blue Yawl & soon after landed on a small sandy Key, about 2 1/2 or 3 miles from the Wreck.”

This account is taken from James Morrison’s narrative which he recorded as his report while waiting for his trial in

Reynolds’ pen & ink sketch (c. 1792) of a shipmate in the water  (Private Collection)

Portsmouth in 1792. It mentions the names of other prisoners and recounts what happened in and around ‘the Box’ during the last hours the Pandora was afloat.

An ms-version of this account is kept in the Mitchell Library (State Library New South Wales)  as Morrison’s “Report” to Reverend  Howell   (Mitchell Library MS Safe 1/33)


Peggy Stewart and Edward Bell

Edward Bell was the clerk on board HMS Chatham during its’ voyage in 1791 – 92 in the Pacific as tender to  HMS Discovery, George Vancouver’s main expedition vessel. Bell kept a journal – an MS version is at the Alexander Turnbull Library in Wellington (NZ) and is interesting for the light that it throws on Peggy Stewart’s love for George Stewart and their daughter Charlotte (also known as ‘Little Peggy’).

Some quotes from Bell’s journal entries:

“We were surprised today at seeing alongside in a double canoe, 3 women all dressed in white linen shirts,and having each a fine young child in their arms, perfectly white (…) they were women who had cohabited with some of the Bounty mutineers and these little ones were the offspring of their amours (…)  the women called themselves by the names of those with whom they had lived, with the addition of a Christian name …Peggy Stewart, Mary McIntosh and Mary Bockett…” (27 Dec 1791)

“Poor Peggy was not a beauty, nor had she in her appearance that I should suppose would ever tempt a man to turn Pirate  but she is possessed of much sensibility, an affable, agreeable disposition together with a sweetness of manners that upon a short acquaintance made up for the deficiency of personal beauty. She was immoderately fond of her little child and seldom without it…”  (24 Jan 1792)

“She frequently asked if Stewart would be hung and  at those times burst into a flood of tears (when told it was likely)(…) she informed us that the Pandora had been here and had taken 13 of the Bounty’s people and sailed from here about 8 months ago (…) she pleaded two midshipmen Stewart and Hayward Heywood’s part very strongly, and endeavoured to impress us with an idea that they were in no way concerned with the mutiny”(….)(folio 72)

“Peggy Stewart came today with a present and as usual brought her child with her, she was much distressed by Capt. Vancouver telling her that Stewart and Heywood would be hung on their arrival in England with the other mutineers… (folio 88)

At the time these entries were written, George Stewart was already dead, drowned during the Pandora wreck on 29th Aug 1791; however this news would not reach Tahiti for a considerable length of time, possibly Peggy was not directly informed until the arrival in 1795 of the London Missionary Society’s missionaries. It is said she died of a broken heart upon hearing this news.